Saturday, June 27, 2020

Thoreau’s Influence on Abby’s Desert Solitaire - Literature Essay Samples

It was soon after the American Revolution that Thoreau, one of the most influential literary figures of the 19th Century, questioned the effective freedom and happiness of American citizens. The Declaration of Independence stated that all men have some unalienable rights among which â€Å"Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness† (Jefferson) are to be found. According to Thoreau, people â€Å"have no time to be anything but a machine† (5). In other words, work has dehumanized people preventing them from enjoying their lives, friendships, and â€Å"true integrity day by day† (Thoreau 5). The condition of the laboring man takes one back to the British tyranny of the past or even worse, a kind of self-enslavement in which Americans become their own victims. Thoreau proposes a return to a primitive state in contrast with the industrial revolution and the emerging capitalist system which threaten man’s individuality and liberty. By naturalizing the capitalist ideology, society has made Americans believe that they are free, but actually, they have been enslaved by their own sense of duties and obligations to conform to societal expectations. Almost two centuries later, Edward Abbey condemns the mainstream society for being too attached to this same consumerist ideology. He believes in the need to abandon the stress of everyday life and reunite with nature, which is too exploited especially in favor of a tourism that does not value it. Thoreau’s influence on Abbey is extremely evident on the topic analyzed in Desert Solitaire, yet it is also evident on the style that Abbey uses in the book. Upon publication, both Walden and Desert Solitaire were originally greeted with unenthusiastic responses, so that both books built their audiences over a period of years, however, slowly gathering fans until they we are at last recognized by the mainstream culture (Fischerovà ¡ 12). To the journalists, Abbey has dismissed Desert Solitaire as an uninspired patch job by saying, I wanted to be a fiction writer, a novelist. Then I dashed off that Desert Solitaire thing because it was easy to do. All I did was copy out of some journ als that Id kept. It was the first book that I published that had any popularity at all, and at once I was put into the Western Environmentalist Writer bag, category, pigeon hole. I havent tried very hard to get out of it. Ive been making a pretty easy living at it since then (Hepworth 39). This seems to be a primary difference between Abbey and Thoreau. Though still an avid outdoorsman, Abbey is essentially a professional writer, he makes his living out of his pen. Thoreau, on the other hand, failed to be recognized during his lifetime as a successful writer (Schneider). Yet from their writings, both Thoreau and Abbey appear to be motivated not by social values, but, instead, by more individual and transcendental forces, as compared to those of the masses. In both Walden and Desert Solitaire, Abbey and Thoreau portray themselves as observers who are aware of, and in harmony with, nature and natural laws, even when nature can be terrifying. Thoreau writes, I wanted to live deep and suck out all the marrow of life, to live so sturdily and Spartan-like as to put to rout all that was not life, to cut a broad swath and shave close, to drive life into a corner and reduce it to its lowest terms, and, if it proved to be mean, why then to get the whole and genuine meanness of it, and publish its meanness to the world; or if it were sublime, to know it by experience, and be able to give a true account of it in my next excursion (Walden 173). This passage can be compared to Abbeys observation, as he writes of a search to find a missing hiker: The plow of mortality drives through the stubble, turns over rocks and sod and weeds to cover the old, the worn-out, the husks, shells, empty seedpods and sapless roots, clearing the field for the next crop. A ruthless, brutal process – but clean and beautiful. A part of our nature rebels against this truth and against that other part which would accept it. A second truth of equal weight contradicts the first, proclaiming through art, religion, philosophy, science and even war that human life, in some way not easily definable, is significant and unique and supreme beyond all the limits of reason and nature. And this second truth we can deny only the cost of denying our humanity (242). Both Thoreau and Abby acknowledge a basic truth, a beauty which is found, paradoxically, in the amoral cruelty of existence. Both men can be viewed as nonconformists: the figures that emerge from both Walden and Desert Solitaire speak with such individual voices that each seems striking when compared even to one another. In shape and structure, however, both books bear a striking resemblance to one another. Both are rejected from journals (Fischerovà ¡ 32); both are accounts that describe in detail thoughts and observations made during an extended stay in the wilderness by Thoreau in the woods of New England, and Abbey in the desert of the American Southwest. Not coincidentally, each writer begins and ends his narrative in similar fashion. Walden, for example, starts like this: When I wrote the following pages, or rather the bulk of them, I lived alone, in the woods, a mile from any neighbor, in a house which I had built myself, on the shore of Walden Pond, in Concord, Massachusetts, and earned my living by the labor of my hands only. I lived there two years and two months. At present I am a sojourner in civilized life again (107). Abby, on the other hand, starts his book saying, About ten years ago I took a job as a seasonal park ranger in a place called Arches National Monument near the little tow n of Moab in southeast Utah. Why I went there no longer matters; what I found there is the subject of this book (ix). There is a sense of wonder, an amazement at both the simplicity and complexity of nature, which seems to permeate the whole of both books. Henry Thoreau spent a little over two years in the cabin he built on the side of Walden Pond. Edward Abbey worked as a ranger, living alone in the middle of the Utah desert, for three seasons. In both Walden and Desert Solitaire, however, the passage of time seems compressed, truncated from the actual number of days that actually pass. Neither book is, indeed, arranged in a strict, noticeable, chronological manner. The ideas considered, the observations documented, arent so much interlocked with one another and presented in order, like a logical argument, as they are interchangeable, universal and, at the same time, separate from one another. For instance, Abbey writes what is essentially a series of nature lectures, philosophical reflections, anecdotes, and polemics, none of which seems to occur in any particular order. A number of events described in each book, as well as the conclusion each author draws from them, are extremely alike. Thoreau, for example, describes a battle between two species of ants. When it is over, he feels as though he has witnessed, in a microcosm, a war which becomes, ultimately, a metaphor for the ferocity and carnage, of a human battle before my door (276). Similarly, in Desert Solitaire, Abbey observes the mating dance of a pair of gopher snakes, an event which urges him to reconsider the sense of continuity found in nature, and mans place in the order of things: In the long hot days and cool evenings to come I will not see the gopher snakes again. Nevertheless I will feel their presence watching over me like totemic deities, keeping the rattlesnakes far back in the brush where I like them best, cropping off the surplus mouse population, maintaining useful connections with the primeval. Sympathy, mutual aid, symbiosis, continuity (23). Like Thoreau does with the ants, Abbey sees in the snakes a connection between man and nature, and the inherent mystery therein. In a passage that could just as easily been written by Thoreau, he explains: How can I descend to such anthropomorphism? Easily – but is it, in this case entirely false? Perhaps not [. . .] I suggest, however, that its a foolish, simple minded rationalism which denies any form of emotion to all animals but man and his dog. This is no more justified than the Moslems are in denying souls to women. . .All men are brothers, we like to say, half-wishing sometimes in secret it were not true. But perhaps it is true. And is the evolutionary line from protozoan to Spinoza any less certain? That also may be true. We are obliged, therefore, to spread the news, painful and bitter though it may be for some to hear, that all living things on earth are kindred (23-24). Both writers certainly recognize and acknowledge the animal within themselves, the animal instinct that lies in every man. Under similar circumstances, both Thoreau and Abbey come face to face with the wildness, with the primitive desire to kill, in their own souls. Fischerovà ¡ suggests that Thoreau’s section titled Higher Laws is much alike Abby description of his walk home from the country road (45). Thoreau writes of an impulse with which he was seized one night as he returned home, As I came home through the woods with my string of fish, trailing my pole, it being now quite dark, I caught a glimpse of a woodchuck stealing across my path, and felt a strange thrill of savage delight, and was strongly tempted to seize and devour him raw; not that I was hungry then, except for the wildness which he represented (260). By the same token, Abbey displays a similar desire; he sees a cottontail rabbit and decides to kill it. What motivates him echoes Thoreau, For a moment I am shocked by my deed; I stare at the quiet rabbit, his glazed eyes, his blood drying in the dust. Something vital is lacking. Bu t shock is succeeded by a mild elation. . .I continue my walk with a new, augmented cheerfulness which is hard to understand but unmistakable. What the rabbit has lost in energy and spirit seems added, by processes to subtle to fathom, to my own soul (38). Each man possesses an innate wildness, a primeval instinct which is in harmony with nature and, eventually, with man himself. Thoreaus desire and Abbeys deed both take us back to the terrible and mysterious, yet beautiful, meanness which both Thoreau and Abbey find in nature. On the whole, the influence that Thoreau has had on Abbey, both on the style and on the content, is undeniable. It is also undeniable, however, the fact that both Walden and Desert Solitaire are texts born from the need to denounce a society that was increasingly favoring capitalism at the expense of nature, and at the expense of a life in conjunction with nature. Both books can be considered an extremely modern social criticism, despite having been written in two different centuries and being chronologically distant from us. Works Cited Abbey, Edward. Desert Solitaire a Season in the Wilderness. Ballantine Books, 1985. Fischerovà ¡, Anna. â€Å"The Legacy of Henry David Thoreau: The Influence of Diary Prose on American Environmental Thought.† Theses, Masaryk University, 12 Dec. 2010, theses.cz/id/m91255/. Hepworth, James. The Poetry Center Interview. Resist Much, Obey Little: Some Notes On Edward Abbey. Eds. James Hepworth Gregory McNamee. 1985. 33-42. Jefferson, Thomas. The Declaration of Independence. Historic American Documents. Lit2Go Edition. 1776. Web .. December 7, 2018. Thoreau, Henry David. Walden. Beacon Press, 2017.

Monday, May 25, 2020

Martin Luther Essay - 671 Words

There was an argument between two great scholars, Robert Kolb and Hans Kung on whether Martin Luther’s reform improved the lives of European Christians. Kolb agreed that martin Luther made a positive impact on European Christians and he concluded that Luther was a prophetic hero, teacher and that Luther brought change and hope to the people. Kung on the other hand believes that Luther was a great orchestrator of change in the Christian church but also an indirect instigator of the violence and oppression that erupted among the people. In other words Luther had some positive effects but left more negative consequences on the people. This essay’s main focus is to identify which argument appears to be more convincing and persuasive but for†¦show more content†¦Kung believes there were other factors that contributed to the reformation. Events like the fall of the papacy, rise of the nation states, the rapid development of the press, the huge demand for education an d other similar events paved way for the revolution to occur. As positive as a reformation or revolution may sound, Kung suggested that Luther’s reformation created numerous unpleasant consequences like the religious wars, the formation of various radical sects, the subordination of peasants to rulers and so many other similar events. After analyzing both arguments, Hans Kung’s argument appeared to be more persuasive on so many levels. I didn’t really believe in what Robert Kolb was arguing about because he was very focused on the positive effects of Luther’s reformation. Kolb seemed to suggest that since Luther’s intention was for good, all other events that do not reflect Luther’s intentions were irrelevant. However, Kung on the other hand was able to give a broad explanation of the events that took place before and after the Lutheran reformation which gives the reader a better understanding of the effects of the reformation. What I agree with the most in kung’s argument was the fact that Luther’s reformation left more negative consequences on European Christians. EventsShow MoreRelatedLuther, By Martin Luther1221 Words   |  5 PagesMartin Luther, born in 1483, grew up in a devout Roman Catholic household, where the church stood at the center of his world. Howe ver, he suffered at the hand of his parents’ harsh criticism. His father had emerged from the feudal system into the new middle class as a successful Coppersmith. His desire was for his son to also climb the social ladder. To assist with his son’s success, Luther’s father was a fierce judge of the character of his son, and often punished him severely for his failures.Read MoreThe Story Of Martin Luther898 Words   |  4 PagesThe story of Martin Luther life . Martin Luther was born in the town of Eisleben in east-central Germany. We should however speak of Germany as it was spoken of it that era, because Germany was a geographical expression used in the Middle Ages, so instead of saying Germany the correct expression would be German lands. These lands were divided again and again .they were also ruled and misruled by many princes in the land. The princes rich or poor would compete with each other for the most local powerRead MoreMartin Luther And The Catholic1550 Words   |  7 Pagestransformation, but Martin Luther is one of the more significant figures. 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Luther has been variously identified as an advocate of absolute monarchy, democracy, individual freedom, intellectual repression, nationalism, internationalism, spirituality and secularism. He was a religious figure; his battles were fought ov er theological issues that may seem to us obscure but whoseRead MoreThe Death Of Martin Luther1013 Words   |  5 Pages Martin Luther was born in Germany on November 10th, 1483. He was the son of Hans and Margarette Luther. In 1501 Martin entered the University of Erurt where he received a master of arts degree. He got a degree in grammar, logic, rhetoric and metaphysics which seemed as if he was becoming a lawyer. In 1505, Luther went through some life changing experiences which led him on a new course. He got caught in a storm where he plead out to St. Anne, Save me, St. Anne, and I have become a monkRead MoreThe Life of Martin Luther1037 Words   |  5 PagesMartin Luther was a man who impacted the world’s society and history. He marked the beginning of the Protestant Reformation, which changed the course of Christianity forever. He was a powerful man of God, who reformed the corrupt Catholic Church, rediscovered the Living Word of God, and restored many authentic Christian doctrines. Luther was a man who changed the world. Martin Luther was born in Eisleben, Germany on November 10, 1483 to a middle-class family. During his childhood, two of his brothers

Monday, May 18, 2020

Key Drivers And Targets For Walmart Business Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2397 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Marketing Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? Wal-Mart being a brand of United States and being a world largest brand in retail segment, they are planning to open a subsidiary in Indian market because they believe Indian retail market is one the growing market at current scenario. Moreover, 90% of their products and the services would source locally and this will help Wal-Mart to minimise its cost and maximise its market share and profits. And, this will also lead to the growth in the economy as it will lead to growth in the employment which will acts as a productive method for company as well as the Indian economy. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Key Drivers And Targets For Walmart Business Essay" essay for you Create order The primary motive to internalise the brand is the growth in the production rate and to witness more demand in the Indian market. Secondly, the key driver that has lead the company to globalise their brand is the recognition of the brand and to implement their strategy across the globe i.e. to provide the products and the services at minimal cost and to attain maximum customer satisfaction. Moreover, the company has introduced different stores to fulfil different needs of the customers such as Supercentres which confer wide range of products under one roof, Neighbourhood markets which provides groceries, pharmacy and general merchandise every day at low prices. The Marketside outlets are the ones providing fresh and delicious meals at great deals and they are mainly small neighbourhood stores. The last driving factor for Wal-Mart to operate in India is selling online. This targets the corporate who keep themselves busy at work and dont manage the time to avail the products at grea t deals.Therefore, Wal-Mart has introduced online shopping to provide comfort to their customers. India being highly populated country can never face any difficulty till the time brands and facilities like Wal-Mart provides to its customers. Why India Over the last few decades there has been a tremendous growth in the Indian retail industry. The industry has grown at a CAGR of 11% during FY04-07 accounting maximum share of food and grocery products. Even though the market was dominated by the small players and practicing unorganised process, the industry has gained in terms of revenue at CAGR of 19.5% during the period of Fy04-07, wherein, footwear and apparels made the maximum contribution towards the increase of revenue. The retail industry has a effective links with the growth of the Indian economy. It can be measured by their high working capital and through their growth structure. There are many factors which has contributed to the growth of the Indian economy such as growth in the purchasing power of people, standard of living, urbanisation, growth rate of the private firms in the industry. The modernisation in the retail industry has given shape of introduction of the departmental stores and the super marts which provi des products and services under one roof. Besides, the introduction of super marts in the Indian market, the advancement in the technology has contributed a lot to bring the retail segment upwards i.e. rural retailing, e-retailing. These all factors gives opportunity to big brands such as Wal-Marts to operate their business in the Indian market and provide much more flexibility and effectiveness in the industry. (https://snipsly.com/2010/03/11/report-on-indian-retail-industry/) The brand is well known in the market due to its distinctive corporate culture and the value and the morals drives them to be a renowned brand across the globe. The prime corporate culture that the company follow is to save their customers money so that they can live better, healthy and effective lifestyle. Moreover, every member of Wal-Mart works with the same level of veracity and esteem that Mr. Sam, the founder, thought his company to be like. Therefore, Wal-Mart distinctive culture is making a diff erence for the customers, the members and the people who are associated with the brand. Hence, this makes the company distinctive in comparison to the other brands in the market. (https://walmartstores.com/AboutUs/295.aspx) (https://walmartstores.com/aboutus/) Therefore, due to the above mentioned reasons and considering Indian retail industry as a strong market, Wal-Mart will make a profitable business by introducing subsidiary in India. Staffing Strategy Broadly the activities of domestic HRM and IHRM are similar however; domestic HRM takes into consideration employees from one country only whereas in IHRM employees are from different countries, cultures and backgrounds. This is one of the major differences between domestic HRM and IHRM because when employing people of different national categories or when operating in different countries the working environment tends to become more complex. IHRM is the one of the most important aspects that MNCs focus on because to effectively managing people located in various continents and cultures is a challenging task. Effective HR strategies have to be developed by an organization in order to effectively utilize its multinational workforce. (Dolan, 1996) The figure above is a model of IHRM. As it can be seen it consists of 3 dimensions:- There are three broad human resource activities namely procurement, allocation and utilization. (These include the 6 main activities of Human Resou rce Management like HR planning, Staffing , Training and Development etc. ) The country categories involved are the a) host country where a subsidiary is located (e.g. There is a subsidiary of WALMART in India as mentioned), the home country where the headquarter of the firm is located (USA where the headquarter of WALMART is located as mentioned) (Williams, 2005) The three types of employees are: Host Country Nationals (e.g. employees in India for WALMART), Parent Country Nationals (employees in USA) and Third Country Nationals. (Dowling et.al., 1999) MNEs staffing strategy from PCNs to HCNs pr TCNs. According to Taylor, HR is an ingredient in developing advantages in highly competitive global world (Briscoe and Schuler, 2004 ; Taylor et al, 1996). Lorange predicts that to have an effective HR approach the company should pertain skills to compare their HR strategies from PCNs to HCNs (Lorange, 1986). Moreover, if the company goes global they need to focus on the training and development issues because what works at home doesnt work outside. So the HCNs must be given proper training in order to have better and efficient system at work (Black et al. 1999). The company should be guided by the HR staff of the subsidiary in order to avoid conflicts between the PCNs and HCNs. People Management Style USA AND INDIA The advancement in the technology has result in increase in the productivity levels in the organisations and led to shortage of labours. Hence, it is enforcing organisations to engage in effective and efficient recruitment methods and leading to a diverse workforce. Moreover, in America the HR department is becoming more competitive in nature in respect to provide the qualified set of people for the job and this is being created to giving them effective set of incentives. (https://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=848307HYPERLINK https://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=848307show=pdfHYPERLINK https://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=848307show=pdfshow=pdf) Alison M. Konrad, John Deckop, (2001) Human resource management trends in the USA Challenges in the midst of prosperity, International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 22 Iss: 3, pp.269 278 As per the reports, Wal-Mart has got new structure i.e. they are reducing their market managers span of control in order to give the store managers opportunity to develop and implement productive styles at work. This will result in the stronger management at stores and better growth opportunities down the line. (https://walmartstores.com/pressroom/9624.aspx) The management style in the organisation differs from one another. The style of working in US is different from the Indian style of working. For example, in India the political connections plays an important role for the giant players but in America they does not have much role to play. Moreover, in America the top level does not have links with them; they operate business as B2B system. Despite the political concerns, the leadership style in managing people also varies from country to country. For example, in America there are five types of leadership styles that are taken into consideration while operating a business i.e. Directive, Participative, Empowering, Charismatic and Celebrity (Superstar). The initial four deals with the way subordinates execute their power and the last one is not in the hands of internal members. It is beyond the internal power. (https://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/4869.html) Moreover, according to Hofstede, there is a major difference between Indian and American style of managing people. Hofstede theory for INDIVIDUALISM versus COLLECTIVISM states that the Americans stand as a professionals and are individualistic. Whereas, the Indian people believe in working as WE. This differentiates their style or working in the organisation (Hofstede, 2002). People Management Mechanisms: Comparison between USA and India in people management mechanism Being a manager- the roles and the duties of the manager differs from country to country. For example, in India the mangers must focus on the procedure and the custom that exists in the organisation. The caste system might be illegal but an effective hierarchical structure still exists in the Indian companies. On the other hand, the managers need to be safest while handling the cross cultural issues in the organisation. The people are treated equally. Moreover, in America all the individuals are appreciated for their hard work and thus given a proper time and chance during the decision making process in the organisation. Approach to time and priorities- Taking US into consideration, it is highly time oriented nation and thus expects the employees to be punctual and articulate in their task. Not completing the task at the given time is a sign of inefficiency and might lead to severe consequences for the employees. The task completed in time is as sign of perfect management and ef ficient working techniques. As far as India management is concerned, its slightly different in comparison with US. The prime reason behind is that Indian community is high on the relationship part so there are chances of skipping the deadlines. Decision Making- This process plays an important role for the managers and for the top level executives because productive and efficient decision will lead to flexible operations of the business. Therefore, in India, the culture is more of informal in terms of relationships between the managers and the employees of the company. Hence, the decisions are made by the managers and are delegated to the subordinates. And the subordinates how to meet the given objectives. Moreover, while considering cross cultural aspects one need to maintain respect and behaviour as per the position. For example, the manager arranging furniture will look inappropriate for that task, and hence it will lower your esteem in your organisation. So right person for th e right job is followed in Indian companies. On contrary, in US the process of decision making is totally opposite, wherein , the employees has the freedom to speak during the meeting and their points are considered if valid. And they have the authority to speak directly at higher level management. Communication and Negotiation Styles- Taking American style of negotiating into consideration, it is said to be hard sell style. Wherein, the employees tend to maintain strong pitch during negotiation in order to enthuse confidence and trust. They are inclined towards providing evidence for their work i.e. logical reasoning. Their style of communicating and negotiating with people is getting the work done in short span of time and attaining best combination of deals for their organisation. On the other hand, the Indian style of negotiating and communicating varied that from US people. The cross cultural concerns might be better option in Indian organisations if people understand the im portance of the relationships. Operating business is based on the trust and so it takes time and patience to build a strong network all along. Moreover, the Indians are not confrontational at business front and it not easy for them to digest the fact; secondly, the decisions are taken by the top level management still it takes time to process. Lastly, it is not worthy to trust on word of mouth while make agreements. Hence, proper legal issue must be taken into consideration while communicating and negotiating deals of the organisations in India. (https://www.kwintessential.co.uk/intercultural/management/india.html) Overview of the Subsidiary Country India The success and the survival of any employee do not only depend on analysing the market trends and implementing them into their internal strategies for the development of the company but also the employee develop systems on performance including the recruitment and selection procedures. (Arthur 1994, Miller Cardinal 1994, McDuffie 1995, Huselid 1995). (https://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0198-510028/Indian-retail-sector-HR-challenges.html) In India the workload on the employees is so heavy that they get demotivated and thus results in ineffective operations in the company. Hence, the employees must be given proper breaks i.e. not forcing them to work on weekends and other holidays. Instead they should be given freedom so that they get charged and can perform better in order to meet companys objectives. The communication process is quite structured in the Indian companies which acts as positive sign for the companies in India i.e. the open communication is encouraged from low er level to upper level and hence this practice leads to the satisfaction for the managers as well as the customers because their demands are directly conveyed to the top level management. The motivational factor acts as positive sign of the growth of the company. Therefore, the company must motivate their employees in terms of giving rewards and benefits for their tremendous work and appreciate in order to retain high performance at work. (https://retail.franchiseindia.com/articles/Retail-Operations/HR-and-People/HR-practices-need-up-gradation-212/) Recommendation Conclusion To Conclude, Culture is an important aspect that should be looked at by an organization very seriously. It is a whole lot more complex than domestic culture because it involves different countries who have their own set of culture, local systems, patterns of behaviour etc. A multinational in order to be successful should adapt to these varied cultures. Proper training should be given to expatriates about the culture, cross-communication skills, etc. of the respective host country when they go on an international assignment. Hence, success and the survival of the organisation depends upon the internal and external calamities i.e. national and international culture to attain position and recognition in the market

Friday, May 15, 2020

Learn About Private School Vouchers

For decades, parents had no choice when confronted with a failing public school. Their only option was to continue sending their children to a bad school or move to a neighborhood that had good schools. Vouchers are an attempt to redress that situation by channeling public funds into scholarships or vouchers so that children have the option of attending private school. Needless to say, voucher programs have caused much controversy.   School Vouchers School vouchers are essentially scholarships that  serve as payment for education at a private or parochial K-12 school when a family chooses not to attend the local public school. This type of program offers a certificate of government funding that parents can sometimes take advantage of if they opt to not attend the local public school.  Voucher programs often fall under the category of school choice programs. Not every state participates in a voucher program.   Lets go a little deeper and look at how the different types of schools are funded. Private schools are funded privately, as in, not by government funds. Private schools rely on tuition dollars and charitable giving from current families, alumni, faculty, trustees, past parents, and friends of the school.Public schools  are public educational institutions and are funded by taxes.Charter schools  get the best of both worlds and are operated as private institutions, but still receive public funding.   Thus, the Voucher Programs that exist essentially  offer parents the option to remove their children from failing public schools or public schools that cannot meet the needs of the student, and instead, enroll them in private schools. These programs take the form of vouchers or outright cash for private schools, tax credits, tax deductions and contributions to tax-deductible education accounts. Its important to note that private schools are not required to accept vouchers as a form of payment. And,  private schools are required to meet the minimum standards established by the government in order to be eligible to accept voucher recipients. Since private schools are not required to adhere to federal or state requirements for education, there may be inconsistencies that prohibit their ability to accept vouchers.   Where Funding for Vouchers Come From Funding for vouchers comes from both private and government sources. Government-funded voucher programs are considered  controversial by some for these main reasons. In the opinion of some critics, vouchers  raise the constitutional issues of separation of church and state when public funds are given to parochial and other religious schools. Theres also the concern that vouchers reduce the amount of money available to public school systems, many of which already struggle with adequate funding.For others, the challenge to public education goes to the core of another widely held belief: that every child is entitled to free education, regardless of where it takes place.   Many families support voucher programs, as it allows them to use tax dollars they pay for education but arent able to use otherwise if they elect to attend a school other than the local private school.   Voucher Programs in the US According to the American Federation for Children, there are 39 private school choice programs in the US, 14 voucher programs, and 18 scholarship tax credit programs, in addition to a few other options. School voucher programs continue to be controversial, but some states, like Maine and Vermont, have honored these programs for decades. The states that offer voucher programs are: ArkansasFloridaGeorgiaIndianaLouisianaMaineMarylandMississippiNorth CarolinaOhioOklahomaUtahVermontWisconsinWashington, D.C. In June 2016, articles appeared online about voucher programs. In North Carolina, a democratic attempt to cut private school vouchers failed, according to the Charlotte Observer. The article online dated June 3, 2016, reads: The vouchers, known as Opportunity Scholarships, would serve an additional 2,000 students per year starting in 2017 under the Senate budget. The budget also calls for the voucher program’s budget to increase by $10 million each year through 2027, when it would receive $145 million. There were also reports in June 2016 that 54% of Wisconsin voters support using state dollars to fund private school vouchers. An article in the Green Bay Press-Gazette reports, Among those polled,  54 percent support the statewide program, and 45 percent said they oppose vouchers. The survey also found 31 percent strongly support the program and 31 strongly oppose the program. Wisconsin adopted a statewide program in 2013. Naturally, not all reports tout the benefits of a voucher program. In fact, Brookings Institution released an article stating that recent research on voucher programs in Indiana and Louisiana found that those students who took advantage of vouchers to attend private school, rather than their local public schools, received lower scores than their public school peers.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Improving China s Development Policy - 1533 Words

Improving China’s development policy has a personal urgency for me. For the past twenty-two years, my mother has worked in the municipal Department of Family Planning where she enforced the One-Child Policy, an effort to â€Å"create the best population structure for China’s national development.† The gap between China’s needs and the policy tools I saw used to meet those needs sparked my passion for transforming the system. As an official, my mother often had to penalize â€Å"excessive pregnancies.† I vividly recall the time a desperate woman implored my mother not to order the abortion of her child, but she refused because of the law. Even knowing my mother would be punished if she had acted differently, I was shocked by this system’s cruelty to women. Occasionally, some of these â€Å"illegal† women managed to escape from forcible abortions at a price of their children becoming the undocumented â€Å"blacklist overborn population† and thus being deprived of the entitlements to social services. During my childhood in a rural village, I acquainted with several such kids who could not receive public education just because their parents failed to obey the civil duty of â€Å"one child a couple.† Every time I asked my mother why they were not invited to school and her answer was always â€Å"they were born illegal,† I would be sorry for my friends and more doubtfu l of the policy. My belief in the national development goal of securing the happiness of the people was since challenged. I felt compelled toShow MoreRelatedThe Social Welfare And Import Trade Of Britain And China1322 Words   |  6 Pagesof Britain and China, and will evaluate the causes and consequences of the differences. In recent years, the import and export trade has been one of the factors of the rapid economic development of many countries, by increasing the production inputs, labour inputs and technology investment, and promoting economic development. At the same time, with the continuous development of economy, countries ensure the harmonious development of society by continuously improving the country s social welfareRead MoreThe World Economy Has Been Growing Constantly Last 55 Years1371 Words   |  6 PagesIndia’s economic growth was stagnant most of the years until last 20-30 years as a free market economy. During the first 50 years India was continuing on its five year development plan to improve the countries various sectors but the progress was extremely slow until recently when country started benefitting from the IMF policies and effect of globalization. India was highly dependent on Soviet Union on trade and Russia as its key supplier of low cost oil. After the collapse of Soviet Union IndiaRead MoreSustainable Design Of Green Logistics Management1419 Words   |  6 PagesManagement in China Based on sustainable development of green logistics in China and the countermeasures (2007), China is especially vulnerable to climate change due to its complex climatic conditions, a fragile ecological environment, a massive population and frequent natural disasters. Insufficient per ca-pita resources and very sharp contradictions between development and environment force China to further develop a cycling economy. Green logistics is an important tool for sustainable development. HoweverRead MoreGlobal Health Policy Efforts Is The Right Of All Humans On The Planet Essay960 Words   |  4 PagesGlobal Health Policy Efforts The right of all humans on the planet is to have access to health, education, and environmental sustainability. In September of 2000, world leaders adopted the United Nations Millennium Declaration, which committed world leaders to eight millennium development goals that address poverty, hunger, disease, and lack of adequate shelter (Millennium Project, 2006). Centers around the world focus on global development in alignment with the Millennium Goals by improving health andRead MoreThe Impact Of Development Strategies On Economic Growth And The Quality Of Life For An Economy Other Than Australia1159 Words   |  5 PagesAnalyse the impact of development strategies on the economic growth and the quality of life for an economy other than Australia. (20 marks) Globalisation, is the process of increasing integration between different countries and economies resulting in the establishment of a single world market and the increased impact of international influences on all aspects of life and economic activity. China’s global integration has assisted their impressive economic performance and the associated improvementsRead MoreHuman Resource Development : China1082 Words   |  5 PagesThe emergence of People’s Republic of China in the last two decades has been remarkable. This paper will analyse and review the procedures which led to human resource development (HRD) in China. People’s Republic of China is the world’s most populous nation with an abundance of manpower availability. The human resources in China were under-utilized because of many reasons. Since China got independence in 1949 till late 1970’s, they followed a highly centralized economic planning system, unlike theRead MoreSustainable Developm ent Of Green Logistics1440 Words   |  6 Pagessustainable development of green logistics in China and the countermeasures (2007), China is especially vulnerable to climate change due to its complex climatic conditions, a fragile ecological environment, a massive population and frequent natural disasters. Insufficient per ca-pita resources and very sharp contradictions between development and environment force China to further develop a cycling economy. Green logistics is an important tool for sustainable development. However, logistics in China is inRead MoreIndi The Next Economic Superpower1540 Words   |  7 PagesMonetary Fund released an update to its World Economic Outlook report predicting that India’s economy will overtake China in terms of its annual growth rate by 2016. The IMF released estimates that predict that India’s economy will grow at 6.3 and 6.5 percent respectively over the next two years. This puts India’s projected growth in 2016 ahead of the organization’s estimates for China, which stand at 6.8 and 6.3 percent for 2015 and 2016, respectively, and leaving India the fastest growing major emergingRead MoreEconomic Growth Of China And Its Effect On The Environment1621 Words   |  7 PagesTitle: Economic growth in china and its effect on the environment in china. Abstract: Economic development is very critical for better future of any country and its residence but for one to gain something thing they must lose something. This has been the case with china’s economy and the environment. China’s growing manufacturing sector and increase in consumption has taken the country’s economy to new heights. Today china is one of the largest economic powerhouse in world, but at what cost. China’sRead MoreThe World s Largest Population1577 Words   |  7 Pagesand 2025 Asia s population will grow by 1.35 billion - between 2025 and 2050 the increase is projected to be just 658 million. China is the world s largest population, estimated to be around 1.24 billion in 1998. It grows at a rate of 1.3% per year or 44,100 people a day. There are now more people living in China than whole world 150 years ago. The population broke the billion mark in the 1982 census, the results of which provided the justification for the strict one-ch ild policy which effectively

Socrates - 1099 Words

Socrates the Greek Philosopher December 14, 2014 PHI/105 In the beautiful city of Athens, Greece, there was a philosopher Socrates, and his Socratic method, was laid on the groundwork for the Western systems of logic and philosophy. Socrates did believe that he didnt know anything, and It was because of this that the Oracle told Socrates that he was wise and that he should seek out the wise men to hear what they had to say. So Socrates began to travel to different parts of Greece to question the suppose wise’ men to see if they really knew all the answers to life. The youth laid their eyes on Socrates since he possessed a different way of thinking and living. His unique method of questioning and insulting was believed that he†¦show more content†¦In which, this gaining knowledge also made Socrates struggle; how can oneself can gain knowledge and when? In the Crito, Socrates stated that a person should obey the contract of the Laws of Athens. He metaphorically said that the Laws of Athens and the citizens were all parents an d children. If a child breaks the law, it is like he is disrespecting his parents. If a person wants to live a â€Å"good life† then one has to obey the laws. Socrates, as a Greek Philosopher, mentioned that the politics were not for philosophers. He believed that once a philosopher enters politics, they could easily be torn and killed. If one thinks different than others, one is putting themselves to death. Socrates wanted to be an individual roaming around the cities. The politic life was not meant for him, and he did not want to get all mixed up or thrown around. He simply wanted to bring issues up to one person at a time. In my opinion, a philosopher like Socrates would probably put himself more in more danger if he were to be put in politics. Politics is a waste of time, and Socrates wanted answers, so he talked to the people directly. Socrates also believed that if a person who enters politics, would have to get along with others and either have to try or force themselv es to agree with one another; which he did not want to lie to himself for the sake of others. Socrates did not give up on philosophy. He pursued as if it was his destiny to show theShow MoreRelatedSocrates : The Suicide Of Socrates1405 Words   |  6 PagesSocrates was born in 470 BCE in Athens, Greece. His father was Sophroniscus, a sculptor and stone mason from Athens and his mother was a midwife by the name of Phaenarete (30 Interesting Socrates Facts 2014). Socrates original profession was masonry and sculpting, before becoming a philosopher. On a day in 399 BC, Socrates ( roughly 71 years at the time) went to trial.Now why would anyone want to send an old man to court? Three answer is that Socrates was accused of refusing to recognize theRead MoreSocrates And The Apology Of Socrates1322 Words   |  6 Pages Socrates is quite the unique individual compared to most, if not all, other Greeks at that time. In the Apology, Socrates gives an analogy of himself being a gadfly and that his gadfly like actions are favorable for Athens and that the actions are goods he is providing. From his service he claims to live a more private life than a public life when discussing virtue. This paper is going to discuss Socrates and his analogy of a gadfly, approach to others about virtue, his conduct effect on democracyRead MoreSocrates As A Martyr And Socrates927 Words   |  4 PagesIn philosophy class this semester we spoke a lot about Socrates and his trial. We were required to read the dialogue ‘Apology’ by Plato. The à ¢â‚¬ËœApology’ Dialogue is what Plato recorded during the speech Socrates gave to the court defending himself against the charges of corrupting the young, and by not believing in the gods in whom the city believes† these two were the main charges, but underneath that there were also other significant charges such as being considered an antidemocratic or pro-SpartanRead MoreSocrates : The Problem With Socrates908 Words   |  4 PagesThe Problem With Socrates: The problem with Socrates concerns the problem with the role of value and reason. Nietzsche believes that the bulk of philosophers claim that life is a corrupt grievance for mankind. Nietzsche reasoned that these life deniers were decadents of Hellenism, as a symptom of some underlying melancholy. For someone to paint life in such a negative light they must have suffered a great deal through the course of their own life. Furthermore, these no-sayers agreed in various physiologicalRead MoreSocrates Worldview Of Socrates1855 Words   |  8 PagesPart 1: Socrates’ Worldview Socrates is a widely renowned teacher, who has taught and demonstrated a variety of lessons that regard how he views the world. Socrates has described his view on morality, purpose, death, and the ultimate. He has spoken about these views through multiple texts including The Last Days of Socrates and they have been interpreted through the text Socrates by George Rudebusch. Through these worldviews, Socrates has given people the opportunity to expand their wisdom andRead MoreSocrates1461 Words   |  6 PagesSocrates was one of the greatest Greek philosophers. His work was not to propose any specific knowledge or policy: it was to show how argument, debate, and discussion could help men to understand difficult issues. Most of the issues he dealt with were only political on the surface. Underneath, they were moral questions about how life should be lived. Such is the influence of Socrates that philosophers before him are called the Presocratic philosophers. Socrates made enemies, three of whom broughtRead MoreSocrates659 Words   |  3 PagesSocrates Socrates was accused of many things in the Athens market. Socrates was accused of being a man who makes the worse argument into the stronger argument. A man who knows about the heavens and earth and therefore any one who believe this must not believe in the gods. Socrates was accused of being an atheist. Most of the people that followed him around his quest were inquisitive. Where as most adults would walk by Socrates with his â€Å"annoying question† the youth stopped to see what heRead MoreSocrates : A Man By The Name Of Socrates963 Words   |  4 PagesIn 469 B.C. a man by the name of Socrates was born. Socrates was a very wise man that cared about doing the right thing. He believed that the best ways to develop ideas was in the give and take of conversation, and that the best way to educate people was to ask them a series of questions leading in a particular direction (now named â€Å"Socrates method). Socrates had been quick to identify the drawbacks of democracy, and he had also been the teacher of two men who in different ways harmed Athens: AlcibiadesRead MoreSocrates s Views On Socrates1314 Words   |  6 PagesSocrates could undeniably be described as one of the most influential philosophers and greatest thinker of his time. His views can be interpreted many different ways, but most would agree that he sought out wisdom and truth for the betterment of himself and his community. Though Socrates was one of the most intelligent men of his time, he was very foolish to never write his own book. For this reason, after his passing, one of his students, Plato, began to write a book about his teachings and ideasRead MorePlato s Ion, Socrates, And Socrates855 Words   |  4 PagesIn Plato’s Ion, Socrates tries to prove that all poets are ignorant. He did not leave out himself, as a matter of fact, what separated Socrates from the others is the fact that he knew he was ignorant. In Socrates conversation with Ion- the rhapsode, he was able to prove that Ion is ignorant by asking him about Homer and another poet who spoke about the same topic, Ion was able to speak up about the questions on Homer, but not that of the other poet, even though they both spoke about the same content

Racism and Its Effects on Nursing Care

Question: Does racism inhibit the provision of adequate nursing care? Answer: Introduction Racism occurs around us in our everyday life as there is plenty of evidence about it. In the medical set up, there are three types of racism which are; the perspective of color blindness, denial and aversive racism. It was earlier though believed that nurses cannot be racists because of their nature of work as they pledged to relieve suffering from humanity regardless of their creed, color or race (Larbie, 1985). However, this position assumes a magnanimous commonality in which it is never the reality in the real sense. Racism within nursing continues to exist and does not depend on being deliberate or being conscious but comes in variety of forms. To start with, bias exists within nursing and occurs with some exceptions in some parts of Australia. Regardless of how the manifestation of inappropriate care in nursing is viewed, like culturally unsafe or culturally insensitive care, the main issue is the effects of racism on nursing. The main issue of concern is that the language and words used by nurses reflects how nurses perceive ethnicity, race and cultural feature of indigenous people (Green et al, 1990, p.126). There are times that nurses do not intend to be racists but they do it anyway. Nurses and everyone in this field view nursing profession as being based on care and empathy. This belief holds that nurses should see people the same way. The corollary is that racism does not really affect the quality and type of care provided. Analysis shows different ways in which stereotypes affect the interaction between women and staff and how the interaction led to poor care of the patients. Nationality, ethnicity and race have effects on the care patients get because patients who have poor command of English are likely to be unpopular. This leads to negative assessment of a client by nurses or health professionals. Patients race makes the patient to be classified as an undesirable patient for their expectations and knowledge of the medical services are not the same as those of the indigenous patients (Diamond and Clarke, 1989). Proper enactment of the role involves features such as etiquette like in the Western culture where there is belittling of discomfort, cooperation of physician with carer and a persons presentation. There is this perception that patients may not get the necessary care when they are perceived as patients who always complain and they end up receiving treatment under false pretenses. In conclusion, midwives can take a lot of time or even at times are unable to provide good medical care because of poor communication among the women from other cultures. According to Homans and Satow (1982, p.17), patients who make nurses or physicians to feel ineffective or angry may become negatively typified. There is evidence that minority and black ethnic women or patients at large are more vulnerable to typification. This is because the color of their skin makes it easier for nurses to identify them and assign them with a communication difficulty title and hence may affect the kind of health care they receive. References Diamond, I. Clarke, S. (1989). Demographic Patterns among Britains Ethnic Groups. The Changing Population of Britain. Oxford Blackwell. Green, J. et al. (1990). Stereotypes of Childbearing Women: A look at some Evidence. Midwifery 6, 125-32 Homans, H. Satow, A. (1982). Can you hear me? Cultural Variations in Communication. J. Community Nursing. 16-18 Larbie, J. (1985). Black Women and the Maternity Services. London: Training in Health and Race